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阅读 > 雅思阅读细节题解题要旨

雅思阅读细节题解题要旨

2018-09-21 13:55:59阅读(

很多同学都反应说,雅思阅读细节信息匹配题比较难做,甚至有同学在考试中对这一题型的匹配度不是很高,今天思润教育就跟大家分享一下这一类型的匹配题该怎么做,首先来看一下,这一题型具体长什么样子,先来看一个例子:

ReadingPassage2hassevenparagraphs,A-G.

Whichparagraphcontainsthefollowinginformation?

Writethecorrectletter,A-G,inboxes14-17onyouranswersheet.

NBYoumayuseanylettermorethanonce.

14acostinvolvedinpurifyingdomesticwater

15thestagesinthedevelopmentofthefarmingindustry

16thetermusedtodescribehiddencosts

17oneeffectofchemicalsonwatersources

这道题没有给大家选项,只给了四个信息,需要同学们把这四个信息跟段落做一个匹配。这就是细节信息匹配的样式。

在了解了这个题的具体类型以后,接下来看看这个题的解题思路:

1.出题思路-主旨?细节?

大家先思考一下这个题的出题思路是什么,是偏主旨还是偏细节?

匹配题最大的特点就是题目都是不按照文章顺序出的,简单扼要的说就是两个字:乱序。而细节匹配题除了乱序的特点之外,还有同义替换程度高,以及没有办法像其他匹配题一样拥有选项来帮助我们缩小题目寻找范围等的特点。所以这个题型毫无疑问就成为雅思阅读题中最难的一类了。

2.解题思路:主旨!细节!

其实这个题从核心本质上来看可以用一个主旨题的做法来解答。那怎么利用一个文章的主旨来做一个如此细节题目呢?

作为主旨题做:

文章的结构--前中后:分析文章结构与中文一样,英文类的文章结构一般在开始的时候都会做一下铺垫,来引入话题,中间就会是文章最核心的部分,也就是文章的高潮,在最后文章会做一个结论、瞻望未来等。确定了文章结构,再读段落的首句来确定题目位置。

段落大意--段落标题匹配:根据段落大意来预测题目会出现在哪一段。

作为细节题做:

情况1:如果文章的结构或者是段落大意不明晰的时候可以用此方法。

情况2:段落细节信息匹配题与标准信息类别匹配题放在一起考的时候。

例题实战

AFormorethanfortyyearsthecostoffoodhasbeenrising.Ithasnowreachedapointwhereagrowingnumberofpeoplebelievethatitisfartoohigh,andthatbringingitdownwillbeoneofthegreatchallengesofthetwentyfirstcentury.Thatcost,however,isnotinimmediatecash.Inthewestatleast,mostfoodisnowfarcheapertobuyinrelativetermsthanitwasin1960.Thecostisinthecollateraldamageoftheverymethodsoffoodproductionthathavemadethefoodcheaper:inthepollutionofwater,theenervationofsoil,thedestructionofwildlife,theharmtoanimalwelfareandthethreattohumanhealthcausedbymodernindustrialagriculture.

BFirstmechanisation,thenmassuseofchemicalfertilisersandpesticides,thenmonocultures,thenbatteryrearingoflivestock,andnowgeneticengineering-theonwardmarchofintensivefarminghasseemedunstoppableinthelasthalf-century,astheyieldsofproducehavesoared.Butthedamageithascausedhasbeencolossal.InBritain,forexample,manyofourbest-lovedfarmlandbirds,suchastheskylark,thegreypartridge,thelapwingandthecornbunting,havevanishedfromhugestretchesofcountryside,ashaveevenmorewildflowersandinsects.Thisisadirectresultofthewaywehaveproducedourfoodinthelastfourdecades.Thousandsofmilesofhedgerows,thousandsofponds,havedisappearedfromthelandscape.ThefaecalfilthofsalmonfarminghasdrivenwildsalmonfrommanyofthesealochsandriversofScotland.Naturalsoilfertilityisdroppinginmanyareasbecauseofcontinuousindustrialfertiliserandpesticideuse,whilethegrowthofalgaeisincreasinginlakesbecauseofthefertiliserrun-off.

CPutitalltogetheranditlookslikeabattlefield,butconsumersrarelymaketheconnectionatthedinnertable.Thatismainlybecausethecostsofallthisdamagearewhateconomistsrefertoasexternalities:theyareoutsidethemaintransaction,whichisforexampleproducingandsellingafieldofwheat,andarebornedirectlybyneitherproducersnorconsumers.Tomany,thecostsmaynotevenappeartobefinancialatall,butmerelyaesthetic-aterribleshame,butnothingtodowithmoney.Andanywaythey,asconsumersoffood,certainlyaren'tpayingforit,arethey?

DButthecoststosocietycanactuallybequantifiedand,whenaddedup,canamounttostaggeringsums.Aremarkableexerciseindoingthishasbeencarriedoutbyoneoftheworld'sleadingthinkersonthefutureofagriculture,ProfessorJulesPretty,DirectoroftheCentreforEnvironmentandSocietyattheUniversityofEssex.ProfessorPrettyandhiscolleaguescalculatedtheexternalitiesofBritishagricultureforoneparticularyear.Theyaddedupthecostsofrepairingthedamageitcaused,andcameupwithatotalfigureof£2,343m.Thisisequivalentto£208foreveryhectareofarablelandandpermanentpasture,almostasmuchagainasthetotalgovernmentandEUspendonBritishfarminginthatyear.AndaccordingtoProfessorPretty,itwasaconservativeestimate.

EThecostsincluded:£120mforremovalofpesticides;£16mforremovalofnitrates;£55mforremovalofphosphatesandsoil;£23mfortheremovalofthebugcryptosporidiumfromdrinkingwaterbywatercompanies;£125mfordamagetowildlifehabitats,hedgerowsanddrystonewalls;£1,113mfromemissionsofgaseslikelytocontributetoclimatechange;£106mfromsoilerosionandorganiccarbonlosses;£169mfromfoodpoisoning;and£607mfromcattledisease.ProfessorPrettydrawsasimplebutmemorableconclusionfromallthis:ourfoodbillsareactuallythreefold.Wearepayingforoursupposedlycheaperfoodinthreeseparateways:onceoverthecounter,secondlythroughourtaxes,whichprovidetheenormoussubsidiesproppingupmodernintensivefarming,andthirdlytocleanupthemessthatmodernfarmingleavesbehind.

FSocanthetruecostoffoodbebroughtdown?Breakingawayfromindustrialagricultureasthesolutiontohungermaybeveryhardforsomecountries,butinBritain,wheretheimmediateneedtosupplyfoodislessurgent,andthecostsandthedamageofintensivefarminghavebeenclearlyseen,itmaybemorefeasible.Thegovernmentneedstocreatesustainable,competitiveanddiversefarmingandfoodsectors,whichwillcontributetoathrivingandsustainableruraleconomy,andadvanceenvironmental,economic,health,andanimalwelfaregoals.

GButifindustrialagricultureistobereplaced,whatisaviablealternative?ProfessorPrettyfeelsthatorganicfarmingwouldbetoobigajumpinthinkingandinpracticesformanyfarmers.Furthermore,thepricepremiumwouldputtheproduceoutofreachofmanypoorerconsumers.Heisrecommendingtheimmediateintroductionofa'GreenerFoodStandard',whichwouldpushthemarkettowardsmoresustainableenvironmentalpracticesthanthecurrentnorm,whilenotrequiringthefullcommitmenttoorganicproduction.Suchastandardwouldcompriseagreedpracticesfordifferentkindsoffarming,coveringagrochemicaluse,soilhealth,landmanagement,waterandenergyuse,foodsafetyandanimalhealth.Itcouldgoalongway,hesays,toshiftingconsumersaswellasfarmerstowardsamoresustainablesystemofagriculture.

Whichparagraphcontainsthefollowinginformation?

Writethecorrectletter,A-G,inboxes14-17onyouranswersheet.

NBYoumayuseanylettermorethanonce.

14acostinvolvedinpurifyingdomesticwater

15thestagesinthedevelopmentofthefarmingindustry

16thetermusedtodescribehiddencosts

17oneeffectofchemicalsonwatersources

这是一个议论型的文章,根据前面提到的出题思路和解题思路,基本上可以确定文章核心的部分开始于C段、D段,C段首句用了一个指代,说明是在与前文做联系,最后一句是一个反问,有承上启下的作用,D段首句有一个强转折。再通过分析我们可以知道文章的结构是A、B段是背景,C段是过渡,D、E段真正代价的总说分说,F、G段是对解决这个问题的考虑。了解了文章的结构,接下来做题的时候就方便很多。

14:E段首句是:"Thecostsincluded…",答案定位在E段

15:说农业产业发展的问题,在讲背景,定位到A和B段

16、17题的做题方法相似,同学们可以自己做一下。

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