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写作 > 雅思写作中因果关系之单词短语表达

雅思写作中因果关系之单词短语表达

2018-11-08 16:53:33阅读(

雅思大作文中有一类题目是因果关系类,具体包括三小类:causeandeffect、causeandsolution、problemandsolution。这三小类问题也可以穿起来,即针对某个topic的cause—effect(即problem)–solution。
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无论哪种题目,写明因果关系很重要。关于因果关系的表达同学们都很熟悉,无非是BS(because/so),而且大家也一定很清楚的知道BS在英语中,用了前者就不能用后者的道理。下面跟随思润小编一起来看看。

例如:

Becausefurthereducationhasbecomemoreaccessibleforawiderrangeofpeople,anincreasingnumberofpeoplehavedegrees。

Furthereducationhasbecomemoreaccessibleforawiderrangeofpeople,soanincreasingnumberofpeoplehavedegrees。

但是除了BS之外,还有很多其它表示因果关系的表达,具体如下:

Because系列(表原因)

1.becauseof:because后接的是一个句子(主谓宾);becauseof后一般直接跟名词。例如:

Becauseoftheincreasingnumberofmachine—andaswenotedbefore,machinesmagnifyhumaneffort—thenanyoneusingamachinecan

getahigherwagethananyonenotusingamachine。

2.as/since(除了“因为“外,还有”自从”的意思,使用时要注意避免歧义)

Hoursspentoncommuting,trafficjams,andfightsforparkingshoulddiminish,sinceworkersmakefewerjourneysorworkstaggeredhours

Unfortunately,asthenumberofpeoplelivinginthecityincreases,sodothedifferentproblemsassociatedwithpopulationgrowth。(注意此句中的so不表示“所以”,而是“…也…”的意思)

3.thanksto(positivesituations通常适用于结果好的时候)

Thankstonewtechnology,it‘seasierthanevertoworkremotely。

dueto(negativesituations通常使用与结果不好的时候)

owingto/attributableto/onaccountof

Dueto/…/Onaccountofextremeweatherconditions,damagetopropertyoccurs。

4.当原因需要的表达较多时,我们还可以把以上表达改写为原因状语从句,使用thankstothefactthat/duetothefactthat/owingtothefactthat或者onthegroundsthat,,,

Willwelivelongermerelyduetothefactthat/onthegroundsthattechnology,ifimplementedproperly,willtakestressawayfromourlives

5.causedby/resultfrom也表原因

Manycaraccidentswereresultedfrom/causedbyalackofguardrails

So系列(表结果)

1.thus/therefore/thereby/hence

thus:表示‘inthis/thatway’

Asacountrydevelops,itscitiesbecometheenginesofdevelopment,thusjobsareavailableintheseareas。

therefore:表示‘forthisreason’/‘becauseofthisorthat’

Therefore,theinfluenceofthepeergroupisimportantbothforone’sowncompetenceandfortherelativeevaluationoftheprocessitself,giventhatoneseesoneselfinrelationtoothers。

thereby:bythatmeans,asaresultofthat

Insomecountries,reducedbudgetshaveledtotheeliminationofbusingsystems,therebyincreasingtheuseofcarsandthecongestiontheycreate。

hence:表示‘fromthis/that’

Drinkinglotsofwaterishealthyandreducingplasticwasteisgreatfortheenvironment。Hence,trendyreusablewaterbottlesthatyoucanrefillyourselfarehealth-promoting,eco-friendly,andgreen。

2.Asaresult/Asaconsequence

Asaresult,thosepeoplewhowereindoorshadmuchlighterskin,whichmeansthatwhiterskinisnowassociatedwithhavingahigherstatusthandarkskin。

Asaconsequence,environmentalhealthmustaddressthesocietalandenvironmentalfactorsthatincreasethelikelihoodofexposureanddisease。

3.consequently/accordingly

Consequently更偏重因果逻辑;accordingly更偏重后续解决

Waterpollutionaffectsdrinkingwater,rivers,lakesandoceansallovertheworld。Thisconsequentlyharmshumanhealthandthenaturalenvironment。

Someofthelawswerecontradictory。Accordingly,measuresweretakentoclarifythem。

Cause系列(表结果)

1.cause(v。)引起

Theamountofgarbageproducedbythepeoplealsoincreaseswhichcausessanitarylandfillstofillupfaster。

2.leadto/resultin导致

注意这里是resultin,后跟结果,前面提到的resultfrom后面跟的是原因。

Thesociety’sattitudetofoodoftenleadstoover-consumption。

3.bringabout:tocausetotakeplace引起,带来(注意使用时更倾向于“带来“这个意思)

Theinternettechnologiesthathavebroughtaboutsomuchsocialchangewerescarcelyimaginablejustdecadesbeforetheyappeared。

4.sparkoff引发、引爆,具体指引发比较严重的后果、冲突等(=trigger/activate),或指”点燃“(=inspire)

Sparkoffaseriesofproblems/achainofeventsrelatedto…

Theycansparkoffeachother‘stalents

affect系列(影响到)

1.Affect/influence

Morelikelythannot,gettingavehiclefrompoint“A”topoint“B”involvescombustionofafossilfuel,aprocessthatemitsgassesandaffectstheenvironmentandtheozonelayer。

People‘sbehaviorisinfluencedbycircumstancesandevents,friendsandfamily,education,jobprospects,income,housingandenvironment。

2.impacton对…产生影响(impact一般做名词使用,也可以作为动词)

Overthelastfewdecades,therehasbeenatremendousgrowthininformationtechnology,whichcanimpactonoureverydaylife。

3.giveriseto使发生

Thedecreaseinthenumberofbicyclesandcarsmightgiverisetoanothernewsetofproblems。

名词系列(因果)

1.cause(ofsth。)/reason原因

Obesitycanbedividedintothreemaincauses–diet,lifestyleandeducation。

Thousandsofpeoplemigratetothecitiesnotonlyforjobsbutalsoforeducationalandpersonalreasons。

2.result(forsth。)/effect结果

Thisisadifficultproblemwithmanyseriouseffectsontheindividualandcountry。

Anotherresultislackofself-esteem。

3.causality因果关系(causeandeffect)causation原因

Thecorrelationbetweenpopulationandhousingpricedoesnotindicatedcausality,onlytheassociation。这里的causality也可以换成:causaleffect(因果效应)

Suchacausality-driven,prevention-focusedapproachtohomicideandotherseriouscrimewouldrevolutionizeourconceptionofcriminaljustice,movingfromtheimpositionof“justdeserts”totheenlightenedpursuitofalessviolentsociety。

4.impact/influence影响

Thisareaisoftenoverlookedbuthasatremendousimpactonyourlife

Friendshaveabiginfluenceonthewaythatweusesocialmedia—fromunwrittenrulestobuyingdecisionsandsomuchmore。

形容词系列(因果)

表示因果的形容词不是很常用,使用时多和factor,element结合

1.causal原因的,因果的

Lowincomeandelderlyareamongthepotentialcausalfactorsofprevalenceofobesityamongadults

2.consequential结果的,随之发生的

Measuresotherthanratingswillprovemoreconsequential

3.influential影响的,有影响力的(大多数情况下使用第二个意思)

Familyisthemostinfluentialfactoronhappiness。

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